(animal) Physiology The study of life, in particular
how different organisms are adapted to their environments.
Culture Ideas and ways
of living of people; more specifically art, science,
tillage 2: the act of developing the intellectual
and moral faculties esp. by education 3: expert care
and training <beauty~> 4a: enlightment and
excellence of taste acquiren by intellectual and aesthetic
training b: acquaintance with and taste in fine arts,
humanities, and broad aspects of science as
distinguished from vocational and technical
skills 5a: the integrated pattern of human behavior
that includes thought, speech, and artifacts and depends
on man's capacity for learning transmitted knowledge to
succeeding generations b: the customary beliefs,
social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious
or social group 6: cultivatiion of living material
in prepared nitrient media; also: a product of such
Wikipedia: In the
twentieth century, "culture" emerged as a concept central
to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are
not purely results of human genetics. Specifically, the
term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings:
(1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent
experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and
creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living
in different parts of the world classified and represented
their experiences, and acted creatively.
ability of certain animals to locate objects by emitting
sound, and listening to their echos.
The knowledge and study of the electrical aspects of life,
such as ion movements in nerve impulses, muscle activity,
and general homeostasis.
The sensory faculty of some animal species to
detect and perceive weak, natural, electrical fields in
aquatic habitats by means of a specialized sensory system.
organ An organ in some species of
fish, often of myogenic origin, capable to emit electric
discharges by synchronized action potentials of
electrocyte tissue. The discharges amount from several
volts to hundreds of volts amplitude.
organs Epidermal sensory organs belonging
to the octavo-lateralis complex in fish, tuned to the
detection of electric potential gradients from 0.01 mV/cm
to 1 V//cm. Electroreceptor organs in vertebrates
include ampullae of Lorenzini, teleost ampullary organs,
and several kinds of tuberous organs.
lateral line system.
Lateral line system
a sensory system in fish and amphibians, to detect water
movements and to locate the source thereof. In fish
visible as a line on the flanks from gill to tail. The
sensory cells of the lateral line organs have the same
design as those of the auditory system, the semicircular
canals, the sense of balance, and the electrosensory cells
of electroreceptor organs.
An institution that houses and cares for a collection of
artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, or
historical importance and makes them available for public
viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or
knowledge and the behavioral study of information
processing of animal organisms by the assembly of sense
organs, nerves, central nervous system, and effectors
(black box approach; systems theory). Ref.: Fechner-GT
1860. Elemente der Psychophysik. Breitkopf & Härtel,
Organization of a neural network, which makes it possible
to distinguish between stimuli that are caused by
movements of the organism itself (re - afferent), and
stimuli which have an external origin (ex-afferent). Ref.:
Holst-E-von, Mittelstaedt-H 1950. Das Reafferenzprinzip.
Wechselwirkungen zwischen zentral Nervensystem und
Peripherie. Naturwiss. 37, 464-476.
The gathering of knowledge (Arie Mutsland)
Chemoreceptor Cells A type of sensory
cell, presumably chemoreceptive, dispersed over the skin
of fish, characterized by a single microvillus as sensory
probe, innervated by the trigeminal system. First
discovered in fish; recently also recognized in the
respiratory system of human beings.