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Glossary

Comparative (animal) Physiology The study of life, in particular how different organisms are adapted to their environments.

Culture  Ideas and ways of living of people; more specifically art, science, religion, law.
Webster's:  1: cultivation, tillage  2: the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties esp. by education  3: expert care and training <beauty~>  4a: enlightment and excellence of taste acquiren by intellectual and aesthetic training b: acquaintance with and taste in fine arts, humanities, and broad aspects of science as distinguished  from vocational and technical skills  5a: the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thought, speech, and artifacts and depends on man's capacity for learning transmitted knowledge to succeeding generations  b: the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious or social group  6: cultivatiion of living material in prepared nitrient media; also: a product of such cultiivation.
Wikipedia: In the twentieth century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings: (1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively.

Echolocation the ability of certain animals to locate objects by emitting sound, and listening to their echos.

Eletrophysiology The knowledge and study of the electrical aspects of life, such as ion movements in nerve impulses, muscle activity, and general homeostasis.

Electroreception    The sensory faculty of some animal species to detect and perceive weak, natural, electrical fields in aquatic habitats by means of a specialized sensory system.

Electric organ   An organ in some species of fish, often of myogenic origin, capable to emit electric discharges by synchronized action potentials of electrocyte tissue. The discharges amount from several volts to hundreds of volts amplitude.

Electroreceptor organs  Epidermal sensory organs belonging to the octavo-lateralis complex in fish, tuned to the detection of electric potential gradients from 0.01 mV/cm to 1 V//cm.  Electroreceptor organs in vertebrates include ampullae of Lorenzini, teleost ampullary organs, and several kinds of tuberous organs.

Ferntastsinn see: lateral line system.

Lateral line system a sensory system in fish and amphibians, to detect water movements and to locate the source thereof. In fish visible as a line on the flanks from gill to tail. The sensory cells of the lateral line organs have the same design as those of the auditory system, the semicircular canals, the sense of balance, and the electrosensory cells of electroreceptor organs.

Museum  An institution that houses and cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.

Psychophysics The knowledge and the behavioral study of information processing of animal organisms by the assembly of sense organs, nerves, central nervous system, and effectors (black box approach; systems theory). Ref.: Fechner-GT 1860. Elemente der Psychophysik. Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig.

Reafference Principle Organization of a neural network, which makes it possible to distinguish between stimuli that are caused by movements of the organism itself (re - afferent), and stimuli which have an external origin (ex-afferent). Ref.: Holst-E-von, Mittelstaedt-H 1950. Das Reafferenzprinzip. Wechselwirkungen zwischen zentral Nervensystem und Peripherie. Naturwiss. 37, 464-476.

Science  The gathering of knowledge (Arie Mutsland)

Solitary Chemoreceptor Cells   A type of sensory cell, presumably chemoreceptive, dispersed over the skin of fish, characterized by a single microvillus as sensory probe, innervated by the trigeminal system. First discovered in fish; recently also recognized in the respiratory system of human beings.