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Utrecht - Science

Electrophysiology - Professionals on the Shop Floor








to Chronological Entry  > > > > BEFORE AND AFTER WW II



Dijkgraaf's appointment as professor of Comparative Physiology in 1948 meant a change of research topics. Whereas his predecessor Jordan studied the physiology of muscle and nerve in gastropod feet, Dijkgraaf favoured senses-and-behaviour of aquatic animals. The string galvanometer, induction coils, and kymographs were replaced by electronic equipment. Nevertheless it would take many years before a full change to electronics had taken place. This was due in part to the mismatch between commercially available equipment and the demands of physiological research. On the other hand lack of appropriate lab space, increasing student numbers, and unpredictable university management played their parts as well
  • Image left: kymograph with sooted drum, induction coil, and the famous Lucas 'swing spring' for double pulse stimulation of nerve and muscle tissue to determine refractory periods. The kymograph was used on physiology practicals till the end of the sixties of the last century.







  • 1963 KALMINIUM  -  EXPANSION UNDER AD J. KALMIJN

    krijgsman

    WCApasserdoos

    After WW II, in 1947, the electrophysiologist B.J. Krijgsman published an enthustiastic treatise on the use of the Philips electron beam oscillograph in physiology research. Unfortunately, he left for South Africa in 1950, which did not help Dijkgraaf's efforts to develop instruction of electrophysiological methods. Peter E.P.Goerner's arrival at Utrecht caused a revival, which was continued and boosted by PhD student Ad J. Kalmijn from 1963 on. There were ample means to invest in equipment, and even possibilities to attract personnel. The only handicap was a serious lack of lab space. Kalmijn received electronic assistance from A.A.C.(Cor) Schoenhage, and analytical support from W.J.G (Wim) Loos, for his investigation of the function of the Lorenzinian ampullae in dogfish, and to implement electrophysiological teaching. After Kalmijn's departure for the U.S.A. in 1970, Schoenhage and Loos would, together with Rob C. Peters and Franklin Bretschneider, continue Kalmijn's work till the first decennium of the 21st century.

  • Image left top: Copy of a picture from Krijgsman's paper, in which he advocates the use of the Philips electron beam oscillograph.
    Ref.: Krijgsman-BJ 1947. Physiologisch onderzoek met den electronenstraaloscillograaf. N.V. Philips, Eindhoven.

  • Image lower left: Part of a picture from the PhD thesis of professor Ziad Qutob, with left the Tektronix 502 oscilloscope on which a Philips-Voigtlander oscilloscope camera (type FE-106) is mounted, mid front a Philips oscilloscope (Philips GM 3156) with a speaker, and in between a home made pre-amplifier with devices for swim bladder research. The other devices on this picture are not described. Ref.: Qutob-Z 1962. PhD Thesis - Utrecht. The swimbladder of fishes as a pressure receptor (zie ook: Arch. NÊerl. Zool. 15, 1-67}.








  • 1968 PHILBRICKIUM  -  FROM ELECTRON TUBE TO  PHILBRICK'S OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER


    app 1963










    philbrick

    Teaching electrophysiological techniques received a major update in 1968. A tour along various hospitable laboratories demonstrated the latest instrumental trends. Battery operated apparatus seemed preferable. Integrated circuits allowed custom made devices, like the voltage-to-current transducer for precision stimulation of electrosensitive fish, and a portable fm-modulator for the recording of dc signals on tape recorders. Such home made devices made recordings in the free field possible. In addition the support of the mechanics and electronics workshop was indispensable. The above mentioned broad expertise of Cor Schoenhage and Wim Loos should not be overlooked.
  • Image left top: Equipment from the electron tube era. A Tektronix 502A oscilloscope on the lower shelf left, to the right a Revox tape recorder for data storage, and more to the right a Hellige Helgoscript paper recorder. On the upper shelf a Tektronix 160 series for the quantification of ECG-intervals, and the pre-amplifiers of the Hellige recorder. The experimenter is Jelle Atema (1966).
    Image left bottom: Circuit of a Voltage-to-Current Transducer from the Philbrick manual, using an operational amplifier, and typical for the custon made devices after 1968.
    Ref: Philbrick/Nexus Research, a Teledyne Company 1968, Dedham Mass 02026 USA. Applications Manual for operational amplifiers for modelling, measuring, manipulating & much else (see also: PhilbrickArchive.org).
  • Image left bottom: Circuit of a Voltage-to-Current Transducer from the Philbrick manual, using an operational amplifier, and typical for the custom made devices after 1968.
    Ref: Philbrick/Nexus Research, a Teledyne Company 1968, Dedham Mass 02026 USA. Applications Manual for operational amplifiers for modelling, measuring, manipulating & much else (see also:  PhilbrickArchive.org).






  • 1968 AND AFTERWARDS - TRANSISTORS - BATTERY POWERED EQUIPMENT - EXAMPLES OF CUSTOM MADE APPARATUS

    The PhD projects on the function of the ampullary organs in the integument of dogfish and catfish consisted of three main questions, von Uexkuell's Trinity:
    1. To which environmental stimuli do the sense organs respond?
    2. Do such stimuli actually occur in the natural environment?
    3. What is the role of such stimuli in survival?
    These questions asked for different instrumental approaches. At first commercially apparatus was used; later more and more custom made devices were built by the workshops and by the students themselves. Eventually equipment was built for recording and stimulating micro-ampullary organs in the skin of freshwater catfish. These micro-ampullary organs proved ideal for elementary neurophysiological instruction. It proved possible to record information transport by single neurons in sedated, but otherwise fully intact, catfish. Even students without any micro-surgical experience were able to perform these recordings. The micro-ampullary sensory synapse was demonstrated to be of the glutamatergic type, and could very well function as a model for the synaptic contacts in the human brain. This science paradigm was closed in 2007.
  • The images hereafter represent a selection of devices and circuits that were designed specifically for research of the electric sense in catfish and dogfish. Last but no least the contribution of Cor Schoenhage should be mentioned, who built many of the opamp modules, amplifiers, plug-in cards etc. Quite a number of these items were transferred to the Utrecht University Museum.



  • .


    werkvoorraad









    electronic components, Kalminium

     snoeren









    shielded power cable, Kalminium

    snoeren









    sustainable signal cables, Kalminium

    PAR113B










    PAR 113B pre-amplifier, mains/batteries
    modifications: precision DC, indicator LED mains

    scoop










    Tektronix 212 oscilloscope, mains/batteries


    wavetek










    Wavetek 112B function generator, mains/batteries


    Uher Report
                      Stereo








    Uher stereo report 4400, mains/batteries

    pmm








    electric fiels measurement, canal Hoofddijk

    fm modulator
                      speaker








    custom made amplifier fm-modulator speaker

    pmm2








    rotor aquatic DC probe
    1972, J. Comp. Physiol. 81, 345-362

    smm








    marine DC probe
    1982, Neth. J. Zool. 32(4), 479-494

    smm_kompas








    marine DC probe, orientation sensor
    1982, Neth. J. Zool. 32(4), 479-494

    implantatie
                      procedure









    in situ, in vivo implantation of electrodes
    1972, J. Comp. Physiol. 79, 29-38

    R.J.A.Buwalda:
                      3 zenuwimplantaties









    Rob Buwalda's Masterpiece: 3 implants
    1972, J. Comp. Physiol. 79, 29-38

    elektro-oriëntatie training









    electro-orientation test with catfish
    1974, J. Comp. Physiol. 92, 273-280

    single
                      unit afleiding









    in vivo, in situ single unit recording
    J. Biol. Education 22(1), 61-66

    huub galle's
                      mikro-elekrode









    Huub Gallé's tungsten micro-electrode
    J. Biol. Education 22(1), 61-66

    tepram









    pre-amplifier sof single unit recordings
    J. Biol. Education 22(1), 61-66

    rek voor
                      opamp-modules









    rack with power supply and opamp modules

     opamp-modules









    opamp modules, stock

    vcc3









    opamp module with plug-in card

    voorversterker 1e
                      trap










    universal pre-amplifier, 1st stage, buffer

    voorversterker 2e
                      trap










    universal pre-amplifier, 2nd stage, filters

    set
                      insteekkaartjes










    various plug-in cards for opamp modules

    kladschema -
                      multiplier







    wiring multiplier plug-in card

     kladschema - schmittrigger







    wiring Schmitt-trigger plug-in card

     kladschema
                      - fotoversterker







    wiring photosensor plug-in card

    insteekkaartje -
                      versterker










    plug-in card - amplifier

     insteekkaartje - schmitttrigger










    plug-in card - threshold circuit
     insteekkaartje - stroombron










    plug-incard - current source

     LED met
                      glasvezel










    LED wirh light guide

     practicumvoorraad









      pre-amplifiers for practical

     insteekkaartje - frekwentiemodulator










    plug-in card - frequency modulator

    dummy RC-belasting










    dummy RC-load
    stroombron










    current source for electrosensitive fish
      veldwerkset










    amplifier, flter, fm-modulator for field work

    Wim
                      in arinoir









    1986: Wim J.G. Loos prepares a practical
    in the 'string galvanometer room' of the old lab,
    Jan van Galenstraat - Utrecht
    Klaus









    1989: electroreceptor thermal sensitivity
    Dr. Klaus Schaefer
    Eur. J. Physiol. 417(1), 100-111

      Martin









    2006: electroreceptor spike patterns
    Dr. M.J.M.Lankheet
    PLoS One, 7(3). ISSN 1932-6203

    omslag
                      schemaboekje





















    cover booklet wiring diagrams
    bedradingsschema
                      plug in module





















    wiring diagam opamp modules
    vcc schema





















    wiring diagram current source